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The Rise And Fall of the Seljuk Empire

In the wake of the Seljuk Empire Turks’ victorious conquests, they embarked on a significant migration towards Anatolia, marking the beginning of their Anatolian journey. This migration was catalyzed by their triumph in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Following this, during the reign of King Shah, the Seljuks reached the pinnacle of their territorial expansion, stretching their influence to its farthest reaches.

The Great Seljuk History

However, the Seljuks would soon face a period of gradual weakening. Several factors contributed to their decline, including conflicts with the powerful Fatimids, the challenges posed by the Crusader campaigns, and battles against other Turkish states in the east. These continuous wars took a toll on the Seljuk Empire, causing significant territorial losses and economic strain.

Adding to their woes, the Oghuz tribes, who constituted a majority of the population, began to rebel against Seljuk rule. The year 1153 marked a turning point when Sultan Sanjar assumed the throne, only to flee two years later. His death in 1157 marked a tragic end, as he was unable to restore unity to the crumbling empire. The Seljuk Empire had fallen.

In the aftermath of their decline, the Seljuks of Rum, under the leadership of Suleiman Shah, rose to prominence. He established his dominion in Anatolia, initially starting with a small piece of land within the Byzantine Empire’s borders. His relations with the Byzantines were complex, oscillating between support and conflict depending on strategic considerations.

Suleiman Shah In Turk History

Suleiman Shah’s strategic brilliance enabled him to capture two pivotal Byzantine cities, Iconium (Konya) and Aizanoi (Aizani). Subsequently, he asserted control over the entire southern coast of the Sea of Marmara. In 1177, he officially declared his state, with Iconium as its capital, marking the birth of the Sultanate of Rum.

Rise Of the Seljuk Empire

Under the reign of Aladdin Qayqubad, the Seljuks of Rum experienced a period of significant growth and expansion. However, this era of strength was short-lived, as external threats loomed. The Mongols, on the verge of entering Anatolia, captured the cities of Erzincan and Sivas, sparking tensions between them and the Seljuks.

Ertugrul Ghazi And Seljuk Empire

The two forces clashed at the Battle of Köse Dağ, where the Seljuks suffered a devastating defeat due to questionable tactics, leading to the Mongols’ control of Erzincan and Sivas. This forced the Seljuks to sign a peace treaty and pay tribute to the Mongols, effectively making them a vassal state.

Ertugrul Ghazi Story

Returning to the story of Ertugrul, his tribe’s migration to Anatolia was driven by the Mongol threat. Initially settling in southern Anatolia, they later moved to Söğüt, where Ertugrul found himself amidst the conflict between the Seljuks and the Byzantines. He aided the Seljuks in a crucial battle against the Byzantines, contributing to their victory and earning himself a piece of land near Ankara.

While this blog post offers a concise overview of the Seljuks’ rise and fall, it is a testament to the complex and rich history of Anatolia during this period. Stay tuned for more historical content and don’t forget to like and subscribe for updates. Farewell!

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